Friday, January 24, 2020

The Dynamic Friendship of Ernest Hemingway and Fitzgerald :: Biography Biographies Essays

The Dynamic Friendship of Hemingway and Fitzgerald In 1930 F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway were both working on novels; Fitzgerald was writing Tender is the Night and Hemingway Death in the Afternoon. They were both living in vastly different places and dealing with different types of situations in their lives. Zelda Fitzgerald, F. Scott's wife, was hospitalized in Switzerland for the better part of 1930-31 after suffering a mental breakdown. Unfortunately for Scott this meant that he had to put aside his novel writing and write several short stories which would be sold to cover the cost of Zelda's medical treatment. Hemingway was residing in the United States during this time but also traveled to Spain during this period. There was no correspondence between the two about Zelda's illness until April, 1931, almost a year after her hospitalization. In October, 1931 Hemingway and Fitzgerald met but scholars are unclear as to the circumstances surrounding this meeting. Around this time however, the two authors began using Maxwell Perkins, their editor, as a courier for their messages to one another. This seems to show that Hemingway's and Fitzgerald's friendship was drifting apart. Perkins must have sensed this because he began to include news about each of them in his letters to them. It's thought that perhaps the lack of correspondence between Hemingway and Fitzgerald during this period fell more on the shoulders of Fitzgerald who was beginning to feel guilty about his writing and lack of success. In 1932, Zelda Fitzgerald suffered a relapse of her mental condition and had to be hospitalized again. During her hospitalization she wrote Save Me the Waltz which would be published by Scribner's in October, 1932. Fitzgerald became uneasy after learning that his wife's book would be published within months of Hemingway's Death in the Afternoon. Fitzgerald worried that Hemingway would resent the fact that Death in the Afternoon would be competing with Zelda's book. Hemingway and Fitzgerald met in New York in January 1933. This meeting, however, was ruined because Fitzgerald was in the middle of one of his benders. They met for dinner with their friend Edmund "Bunny" Wilson and most of the evening was spent with Fitzgerald arguing with both Wilson and Hemingway. This meeting furthered Hemingway's notion that Fitzgerald was a drunken fool who wasted his talent. Hemingway, in a letter to Max Perkins in February 1933, wrote of Fitzgerald: "He's gone into that cheap irish love of defeat, betrayal of himself etc.

Thursday, January 16, 2020


6. SCARY STORIES As I sat in my room, trying to concentrate on the third act of Macbeth, I was really listening for my truck. I would have thought, even over the pounding rain, I could have heard the engine's roar. But when I went to peek out the curtain – again – it was suddenly there. I wasn't looking forward to Friday, and it more than lived up to my non-expectations. Of course there were the fainting comments. Jessica especially seemed to get a kick out of that story. Luckily Mike had kept his mouth shut, and no one seemed to know about Edward's involvement. She did have a lot of questions about lunch, though. â€Å"So what did Edward Cullen want yesterday?† Jessica asked in Trig. â€Å"I don't know,† I answered truthfully. â€Å"He never really got to the point.† â€Å"You looked kind of mad,† she fished. â€Å"Did I?† I kept my expression blank. â€Å"You know, I've never seen him sit with anyone but his family before. That was weird.† â€Å"Weird,† I agreed. She seemed annoyed; she flipped her dark curls impatiently – I guessed she'd been hoping to hear something that would make a good story for her to pass on. The worst part about Friday was that, even though I knew he wasn't going to be there, I still hoped. When I walked into the cafeteria with Jessica and Mike, I couldn't keep from looking at his table, where Rosalie, Alice, and Jasper sat talking, heads close together. And I couldn't stop the gloom that engulfed me as I realized I didn't know how long I would have to wait before I saw him again. At my usual table, everyone was full of our plans for the next day. Mike was animated again, putting a great deal of trust in the local weatherman who promised sun tomorrow. I'd have to see that before I believed it. But it was warmer today – almost sixty. Maybe the outing wouldn't be completely miserable. I intercepted a few unfriendly glances from Lauren during lunch, which I didn't understand until we were all walking out of the room together. I was right behind her, just a foot from her slick, silver blond hair, and she was evidently unaware of that. â€Å"†¦don't know why Bella† – she sneered my name – â€Å"doesn't just sit with the Cullens from now on.† I heard her muttering to Mike. I'd never noticed what an unpleasant, nasal voice she had, and I was surprised by the malice in it. I really didn't know her well at all, certainly not well enough for her to dislike me – or so I'd thought. â€Å"She's my friend; she sits with us,† Mike whispered back loyally, but also a bit territorially. I paused to let Jess and Angela pass me. I didn't want to hear any more. That night at dinner, Charlie seemed enthusiastic about my trip to La Push in the morning. I think he felt guilty for leaving me home alone on the weekends, but he'd spent too many years building his habits to break them now. Of course he knew the names of all the kids going, and their parents, and their great-grandparents, too, probably. He seemed to approve. I wondered if he would approve of my plan to ride to Seattle with Edward Cullen. Not that I was going to tell him. â€Å"Dad, do you know a place called Goat Rocks or something like that? I think it's south of Mount Rainier,† I asked casually. â€Å"Yeah – why?† I shrugged. â€Å"Some kids were talking about camping there.† â€Å"It's not a very good place for camping.† He sounded surprised. â€Å"Too many bears. Most people go there during the hunting season.† â€Å"Oh,† I murmured. â€Å"Maybe I got the name wrong.† I meant to sleep in, but an unusual brightness woke me. I opened my eyes to see a clear yellow light streaming through my window. I couldn't believe it. I hurried to the window to check, and sure enough, there was the sun. It was in the wrong place in the sky, too low, and it didn't seem to be as close as it should be, but it was definitely the sun. Clouds ringed the horizon, but a large patch of blue was visible in the middle. I lingered by the window as long as I could, afraid that if I left the blue would disappear again. The Newtons' Olympic Outfitters store was just north of town. I'd seen the store, but I'd never stopped there – not having much need for any supplies required for being outdoors over an extended period of time. In the parking lot I recognized Mike's Suburban and Tyler's Sentra. As I pulled up next to their vehicles, I could see the group standing around in front of the Suburban. Eric was there, along with two other boys I had class with; I was fairly sure their names were Ben and Conner. Jess was there, flanked by Angela and Lauren. Three other girls stood with them, including one I remembered falling over in Gym on Friday. That one gave me a dirty look as I got out of the truck, and whispered something to Lauren. Lauren shook out her cornsilk hair and eyed me scornfully. So it was going to be one of those days. At least Mike was happy to see me. â€Å"You came!† he called, delighted. â€Å"And I said it would be sunny today, didn't I?† â€Å"I told you I was coming,† I reminded him. â€Å"We're just waiting for Lee and Samantha†¦ unless you invited someone,† Mike added. â€Å"Nope,† I lied lightly, hoping I wouldn't get caught in the lie. But also wishing that a miracle would occur, and Edward would appear. Mike looked satisfied. â€Å"Will you ride in my car? It's that or Lee's mom's minivan.† â€Å"Sure.† He smiled blissfully. It was so easy to make Mike happy. â€Å"You can have shotgun,† he promised. I hid my chagrin. It wasn't as simple to make Mike and Jessica happy at the same time. I could see Jessica glowering at us now. The numbers worked out in my favor, though. Lee brought two extra people, and suddenly every seat was necessary. I managed to wedge Jess in between Mike and me in the front seat of the Suburban. Mike could have been more graceful about it, but at least Jess seemed appeased. It was only fifteen miles to La Push from Forks, with gorgeous, dense green forests edging the road most of the way and the wide Quillayute River snaking beneath it twice. I was glad I had the window seat. We'd rolled the windows down – the Suburban was a bit claustrophobic with nine people in it – and I tried to absorb as much sunlight as possible. I'd been to the beaches around La Push many times during my Forks summers with Charlie, so the mile-long crescent of First Beach was familiar to me. It was still breathtaking. The water was dark gray, even in the sunlight, white-capped and heaving to the gray, rocky shore. Islands rose out of the steel harbor waters with sheer cliff sides, reaching to uneven summits, and crowned with austere, soaring firs. The beach had only a thin border of actual sand at the water's edge, after which it grew into millions of large, smooth stones that looked uniformly gray from a distance, but close up were every shade a stone could be: terra-cotta, sea green, lavender, blue gray, dull gold. The tide line was strewn with huge driftwood trees, bleached bone white in the salt waves, some piled together against the edge of the forest fringe, some lying solitary, just out of reach of the waves. There was a brisk wind coming off the waves, cool and briny. Pelicans floated on the swells while seagulls and a lone eagle wheeled above them. The clouds still circled the sky, threatening to invade at any moment, but for now the sun shone bravely in its halo of blue sky. We picked our way down to the beach, Mike leading the way to a ring of driftwood logs that had obviously been used for parties like ours before. There was a fire circle already in place, filled with black ashes. Eric and the boy I thought was named Ben gathered broken branches of driftwood from the drier piles against the forest edge, and soon had a teepee-shaped construction built atop the old cinders. â€Å"Have you ever seen a driftwood fire?† Mike asked me. I was sitting on one of the bone-colored benches; the other girls clustered, gossiping excitedly, on either side of me. Mike kneeled by the fire, lighting one of the smaller sticks with a cigarette lighter. â€Å"No,† I said as he placed the blazing twig carefully against the teepee. â€Å"You'll like this then – watch the colors.† He lit another small branch and laid it alongside the first. The flames started to lick quickly up the dry wood. â€Å"It's blue,† I said in surprise. â€Å"The salt does it. Pretty, isn't it?† He lit one more piece, placed it where the fire hadn't yet caught, and then came to sit by me. Thankfully, Jess was on his other side. She turned to him and claimed his attention. I watched the strange blue and green flames crackle toward the sky. After a half hour of chatter, some of the boys wanted to hike to the nearby tidal pools. It was a dilemma. On the one hand, I loved the tide pools. They had fascinated me since I was a child; they were one of the only things I ever looked forward to when I had to come to Forks. On the other hand, I'd also fallen into them a lot. Not a big deal when you're seven and with your dad. It reminded me of Edward's request – that I not fall into the ocean. Lauren was the one who made my decision for me. She didn't want to hike, and she was definitely wearing the wrong shoes for it. Most of the other girls besides Angela and Jessica decided to stay on the beach as well. I waited until Tyler and Eric had committed to remaining with them before I got up quietly to join the pro-hiking group. Mike gave me a huge smile when he saw that I was coming. The hike wasn't too long, though I hated to lose the sky in the woods. The green light of the forest was strangely at odds with the adolescent laughter, too murky and ominous to be in harmony with the light banter around me. I had to watch each step I took very carefully, avoiding roots below and branches above, and I soon fell behind. Eventually I broke through the emerald confines of the forest and found the rocky shore again. It was low tide, and a tidal river flowed past us on its way to the sea. Along its pebbled banks, shallow pools that never completely drained were teeming with life. I was very cautious not to lean too far over the little ocean ponds. The others were fearless, leaping over the rocks, perching precariously on the edges. I found a very stable-looking rock on the fringe of one of the largest pools and sat there cautiously, spellbound by the natural aquarium below me. The bouquets of brilliant anemones undulated ceaselessly in the invisible current, twisted shells scurried about the edges, obscuring the crabs within them, starfish stuck motionless to the rocks and each other, while one small black eel with white racing stripes wove through the bright green weeds, waiting for the sea to return. I was completely absorbed, except for one small part of my mind that wondered what Edward was doing now, and trying to imagine what he would be saying if he were here with me. Finally the boys were hungry, and I got up stiffly to follow them back. I tried to keep up better this time through the woods, so naturally I fell a few times. I got some shallow scrapes on my palms, and the knees of my jeans were stained green, but it could have been worse. When we got back to First Beach, the group we'd left behind had multiplied. As we got closer we could see the shining, straight black hair and copper skin of the newcomers, teenagers from the reservation come to socialize. The food was already being passed around, and the boys hurried to claim a share while Eric introduced us as we each entered the driftwood circle. Angela and I were the last to arrive, and, as Eric said our names, I noticed a younger boy sitting on the stones near the fire glance up at me in interest. I sat down next to Angela, and Mike brought us sandwiches and an array of sodas to choose from, while a boy who looked to be the oldest of the visitors rattled off the names of the seven others with him. All I caught was that one of the girls was also named Jessica, and the boy who noticed me was named Jacob. It was relaxing to sit with Angela; she was a restful kind of person to be around – she didn't feel the need to fill every silence with chatter. She left me free to think undisturbed while we ate. And I was thinking about how disjointedly time seemed to flow in Forks, passing in a blur at times, with single images standing out more clearly than others. And then, at other times, every second was significant, etched in my mind. I knew exactly what caused the difference, and it disturbed me. During lunch the clouds started to advance, slinking across the blue sky, darting in front of the sun momentarily, casting long shadows across the beach, and blackening the waves. As they finished eating, people started to drift away in twos and threes. Some walked down to the edge of the waves, trying to skip rocks across the choppy surface. Others were gathering a second expedition to the tide pools. Mike – with Jessica shadowing him – headed up to the one shop in the village. Some of the local kids went with them; others went along on the hike. By the time they all had scattered, I was sitting alone on my driftwood log, with Lauren and Tyler occupying themselves by the CD player someone had thought to bring, and three teenagers from the reservation perched around the circle, including the boy named Jacob and the oldest boy who had acted as spokesperson. A few minutes after Angela left with the hikers, Jacob sauntered over to take her place by my side. He looked fourteen, maybe fifteen, and had long, glossy black hair pulled back with a rubber band at the nape of his neck. His skin was beautiful, silky and russet-colored; his eyes were dark, set deep above the high planes of his cheekbones. He still had just a hint of childish roundness left around his chin. Altogether, a very pretty face. However, my positive opinion of his looks was damaged by the first words out of his mouth. â€Å"You're Isabella Swan, aren't you?† It was like the first day of school all over again. â€Å"Bella,† I sighed. â€Å"I'm Jacob Black.† He held his hand out in a friendly gesture. â€Å"You bought my dad's truck.† â€Å"Oh,† I said, relieved, shaking his sleek hand. â€Å"You're Billy's son. I probably should remember you.† â€Å"No, I'm the youngest of the family – you would remember my older sisters.† â€Å"Rachel and Rebecca,† I suddenly recalled. Charlie and Billy had thrown us together a lot during my visits, to keep us busy while they fished. We were all too shy to make much progress as friends. Of course, I'd kicked up enough tantrums to end the fishing trips by the time I was eleven. â€Å"Are they here?† I examined the girls at the ocean's edge, wondering if I would recognize them now. â€Å"No.† Jacob shook his head. â€Å"Rachel got a scholarship to Washington State, and Rebecca married a Samoan surfer – she lives in Hawaii now.† â€Å"Married. Wow.† I was stunned. The twins were only a little over a year older than I was. â€Å"So how do you like the truck?† he asked. â€Å"I love it. It runs great.† â€Å"Yeah, but it's really slow,† he laughed. â€Å"I was so relived when Charlie bought it. My dad wouldn't let me work on building another car when we had a perfectly good vehicle right there.† â€Å"It's not that slow,† I objected. â€Å"Have you tried to go over sixty?† â€Å"No,† I admitted. â€Å"Good. Don't.† He grinned. I couldn't help grinning back. â€Å"It does great in a collision,† I offered in my truck's defense. â€Å"I don't think a tank could take out that old monster,† he agreed with another laugh. â€Å"So you build cars?† I asked, impressed. â€Å"When I have free time, and parts. You wouldn't happen to know where I could get my hands on a master cylinder for a 1986 Volkswagen Rabbit?† he added jokingly. He had a pleasant, husky voice. â€Å"Sorry,† I laughed, â€Å"I haven't seen any lately, but I'll keep my eyes open for you.† As if I knew what that was. He was very easy to talk with. He flashed a brilliant smile, looking at me appreciatively in a way I was learning to recognize. I wasn't the only one who noticed. â€Å"You know Bella, Jacob?† Lauren asked – in what I imagined was an insolent tone – from across the fire. â€Å"We've sort of known each other since I was born,† he laughed, smiling at me again. â€Å"How nice.† She didn't sound like she thought it was nice at all, and her pale, fishy eyes narrowed. â€Å"Bella,† she called again, watching my face carefully, â€Å"I was just saying to Tyler that it was too bad none of the Cullens could come out today. Didn't anyone think to invite them?† Her expression of concern was unconvincing. â€Å"You mean Dr. Carlisle Cullen's family?† the tall, older boy asked before I could respond, much to Lauren's irritation. He was really closer to a man than a boy, and his voice was very deep. â€Å"Yes, do you know them?† she asked condescendingly, turning halfway toward him. â€Å"The Cullens don't come here,† he said in a tone that closed the subject, ignoring her question. Tyler, trying to win back her attention, asked Lauren's opinion on a CD he held. She was distracted. I stared at the deep-voiced boy, taken aback, but he was looking away toward the dark forest behind us. He'd said that the Cullens didn't come here, but his tone had implied something more – that they weren't allowed; they were prohibited. His manner left a strange impression on me, and I tried to ignore it without success. Jacob interrupted my meditation. â€Å"So is Forks driving you insane yet?† â€Å"Oh, I'd say that's an understatement.† I grimaced. He grinned understandingly. I was still turning over the brief comment on the Cullens, and I had a sudden inspiration. It was a stupid plan, but I didn't have any better ideas. I hoped that young Jacob was as yet inexperienced around girls, so that he wouldn't see through my sure-to-be-pitiful attempts at flirting. â€Å"Do you want to walk down the beach with me?† I asked, trying to imitate that way Edward had of looking up from underneath his eyelashes. It couldn't have nearly the same effect, I was sure, but Jacob jumped up willingly enough. As we walked north across the multihued stones toward the driftwood seawall, the clouds finally closed ranks across the sky, causing the sea to darken and the temperature to drop. I shoved my hands deep into the pockets of my jacket. â€Å"So you're, what, sixteen?† I asked, trying not to look like an idiot as I fluttered my eyelids the way I'd seen girls do on TV. â€Å"I just turned fifteen,† he confessed, flattered. â€Å"Really?† My face was full of false surprise. â€Å"I would have thought you were older.† â€Å"I'm tall for my age,† he explained. â€Å"Do you come up to Forks much?† I asked archly, as if I was hoping for a yes. I sounded idiotic to myself. I was afraid he would turn on me with disgust and accuse me of my fraud, but he still seemed flattered. â€Å"Not too much,† he admitted with a frown. â€Å"But when I get my car finished I can go up as much as I want – after I get my license,† he amended. â€Å"Who was that other boy Lauren was talking to? He seemed a little old to be hanging out with us.† I purposefully lumped myself in with the youngsters, trying to make it clear that I preferred Jacob. â€Å"That's Sam – he's nineteen,† he informed me. â€Å"What was that he was saying about the doctor's family?† I asked innocently. â€Å"The Cullens? Oh, they're not supposed to come onto the reservation.† He looked away, out toward James Island, as he confirmed what I'd thought I'd heard in Sam's voice. â€Å"Why not?† He glanced back at me, biting his lip. â€Å"Oops. I'm not supposed to say anything about that.† â€Å"Oh, I won't tell anyone, I'm just curious.† I tried to make my smile alluring, wondering if I was laying it on too thick. He smiled back, though, looking allured. Then he lifted one eyebrow and his voice was even huskier than before. â€Å"Do you like scary stories?† he asked ominously. â€Å"I love them,† I enthused, making an effort to smolder at him. Jacob strolled to a nearby driftwood tree that had its roots sticking out like the attenuated legs of a huge, pale spider. He perched lightly on one of the twisted roots while I sat beneath him on the body of the tree. He stared down at the rocks, a smile hovering around the edges of his broad lips. I could see he was going to try to make this good. I focused on keeping the vital interest I felt out of my eyes. â€Å"Do you know any of our old stories, about where we came from – the Quileutes, I mean?† he began. â€Å"Not really,† I admitted. â€Å"Well, there are lots of legends, some of them claiming to date back to the Flood – supposedly, the ancient Quileutes tied their canoes to the tops of the tallest trees on the mountain to survive like Noah and the ark.† He smiled, to show me how little stock he put in the histories. â€Å"Another legend claims that we descended from wolves – and that the wolves are our brothers still. It's against tribal law to kill them. â€Å"Then there are the stories about the cold ones.† His voice dropped a little lower. â€Å"The cold ones?† I asked, not faking my intrigue now. â€Å"Yes. There are stories of the cold ones as old as the wolf legends, and some much more recent. According to legend, my own great-grandfather knew some of them. He was the one who made the treaty that kept them off our land.† He rolled his eyes. â€Å"Your great-grandfather?† I encouraged. â€Å"He was a tribal elder, like my father. You see, the cold ones are the natural enemies of the wolf-well, not the wolf, really, but the wolves that turn into men, like our ancestors. You would call them werewolves.† â€Å"Werewolves have enemies?† â€Å"Only one.† I stared at him earnestly, hoping to disguise my impatience as admiration. â€Å"So you see,† Jacob continued, â€Å"the cold ones are traditionally our enemies. But this pack that came to our territory during my great-grandfather's time was different. They didn't hunt the way others of their kind did – they weren't supposed to be dangerous to the tribe. So my great-grandfather made a truce with them. If they would promise to stay off our lands, we wouldn't expose them to the pale-faces.† He winked at me. â€Å"If they weren't dangerous, then why†¦ ?† I tried to understand, struggling not to let him see how seriously I was considering his ghost story. â€Å"There's always a risk for humans to be around the cold ones, even if they're civilized like this clan was. You never know when they might get too hungry to resist.† He deliberately worked a thick edge of menace into his tone. â€Å"What do you mean, ‘civilized'?† â€Å"They claimed that they didn't hunt humans. They supposedly were somehow able to prey on animals instead.† I tried to keep my voice casual. â€Å"So how does it fit in with the Cullens? Are they like the cold ones your greatgrandfather met?† â€Å"No.† He paused dramatically. â€Å"They are the same ones.† He must have thought the expression on my face was fear inspired by his story. He smiled, pleased, and continued. â€Å"There are more of them now, a new female and a new male, but the rest are the same. In my great-grandfather's time they already knew of the leader, Carlisle. He'd been here and gone before your people had even arrived.† He was fighting a smile. â€Å"And what are they?† I finally asked. â€Å"What are the cold ones?† He smiled darkly. â€Å"Blood drinkers,† he replied in a chilling voice. â€Å"Your people call them vampires.† I stared out at the rough surf after he answered, not sure what my face was exposing. â€Å"You have goose bumps,† he laughed delightedly. â€Å"You're a good storyteller,† I complimented him, still staring into the waves. â€Å"Pretty crazy stuff, though, isn't it? No wonder my dad doesn't want us to talk about it to anyone.† I couldn't control my expression enough to look at him yet. â€Å"Don't worry, I won't give you away.† â€Å"I guess I just violated the treaty,† he laughed. â€Å"I'll take it to the grave,† I promised, and then I shivered. â€Å"Seriously, though, don't say anything to Charlie. He was pretty mad at my dad when he heard that some of us weren't going to the hospital since Dr. Cullen started working there.† â€Å"I won't, of course not.† â€Å"So do you think we're a bunch of superstitious natives or what?† he asked in a playful tone, but with a hint of worry. I still hadn't looked away from the ocean. I turned and smiled at him as normally as I could. â€Å"No. I think you're very good at telling scary stories, though. I still have goose bumps, see?† I held up my arm. â€Å"Cool.† He smiled. And then the sound of the beach rocks clattering against each other warned us that someone was approaching. Our heads snapped up at the same time to see Mike and Jessica about fifty yards away, walking toward us. â€Å"There you are, Bella,† Mike called in relief, waving his arm over his head. â€Å"Is that your boyfriend?† Jacob asked, alerted by the jealous edge in Mike's voice. I was surprised it was so obvious. â€Å"No, definitely not,† I whispered. I was tremendously grateful to Jacob, and eager to make him as happy as possible. I winked at him, carefully turning away from Mike to do so. He smiled, elated by my inept flirting. â€Å"So when I get my license†¦Ã¢â‚¬  he began. â€Å"You should come see me in Forks. We could hang out sometime.† I felt guilty as I said this, knowing that I'd used him. But I really did like Jacob. He was someone I could easily be friends with. Mike had reached us now, with Jessica still a few paces back. I could see his eyes appraising Jacob, and looking satisfied at his obvious youth. â€Å"Where have you been?† he asked, though the answer was right in front of him. â€Å"Jacob was just telling me some local stories,† I volunteered. â€Å"It was really interesting.† I smiled at Jacob warmly, and he grinned back. â€Å"Well,† Mike paused, carefully reassessing the situation as he watched our camaraderie. â€Å"We're packing up – it looks like it's going to rain soon.† We all looked up at the glowering sky. It certainly did look like rain. â€Å"Okay.† I jumped up. â€Å"I'm coming.† â€Å"It was nice to see you again,† Jacob said, and I could tell he was taunting Mike just a bit. â€Å"It really was. Next time Charlie comes down to see Billy, I'll come, too,† I promised. His grin stretched across his face. â€Å"That would be cool.† â€Å"And thanks,† I added earnestly. I pulled up my hood as we tramped across the rocks toward the parking lot. A few drops were beginning to fall, making black spots on the stones where they landed. When we got to the Suburban the others were already loading everything back in. I crawled into the backseat by Angela and Tyler, announcing that I'd already had my turn in the shotgun position. Angela just stared out the window at the escalating storm, and Lauren twisted around in the middle seat to occupy Tyler's attention, so I could simply lay my head back on the seat and close my eyes and try very hard not to think.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

A Hostile Workplace Environment, Harassment, And...

Everyone that goes to work expects to go to a place where they will not be harassed and will work in a friendly and fair environment. There are many instances of a hostile work environment, including sexual harassment, bullying, and berating due to religion, just to name a few. Likewise, there are instances where employees may think they are dealing with a hostile work environment when in fact they are not, such as rude and obnoxious coworkers. Employees and companies alike should be aware of what constitutes a hostile workplace environment, harassment, etc., so as to avoid any possible litigation. Definitions Before we delve into the specifics, a few definitions are in order. According to the Bureau of Labor Management (2007), a hostile work environment is a form of harassment and is demonstrated by such severe and pervasive conduct that permeates the work environment and interferes with an employee’s ability to perform his or her job. Although legislation exists in more than 10 states, there currently is no federal or state law that explicitly or generally outlaws â€Å"bullying† at work or â€Å"hostile† work environments; instead, there are laws within Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, and others, that prohibit discrimination and harassment in most workplaces (Saade, n.d.). To add to this, it is â€Å"unlawful to discriminate against any individual in regard to recruiting, hiring and promotion, transfer, work assignments,Show MoreRelatedSexual Harassment At The Workplace990 Words   |  4 PagesIt is great to have a workplace where you are friends with your coworkers. But what happens when coworkers talk about other coworkers in a sexual context. Two male coworkers talking about female staff where coworkers in the area can hear. Your manager suggests that they can help you earn a promotion if you go out with them. This puts employees in awkward situations where they might not know if this is considered sexual harassment. If it is, an employee maybe unsure what to do about it. AccordingRead MoreEssay On Age Discrimination942 Words   |  4 PagesWorkplace Discrimination: It is illegal to discriminate based on race, religion, gender, or national original when hiring or in the workplace. Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) practice is important in every work places. Different Types of Employment Discrimination †¢ Age †¢ Gender †¢ Race †¢ Ethnicity †¢ Skin Color †¢ National Origin †¢ Mental or Physical Disability †¢ Genetic Information †¢ Relationship to someone who may be discriminated against †¢ Pregnancy or Parenthood Age discrimination is a practiceRead MoreApa Essay on Sexual Harassment1094 Words   |  5 PagesSexual Harassment Sexual harassment is a demeaning practice, one that constitutes a profound affront to the dignity of the employees forced to endure it.   By requiring an employee to contend with unwelcome sexual actions or explicit sexual demands, sexual harassment in the workplace attacks the dignity and self-respect of the victim both as an employee and as a human being. Sexual harassment is well defined as an unwelcome sexual request for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct ofRead MoreDiscrimination And Gender Discrimination957 Words   |  4 PagesDiscrimination simply means to differentiate between two or more people, in such a way as to restrict rights. The law view discrimination as distinguishing, separating, differentiating, unequally treating people which, being equal, must be treated with the same degree (Gidro and Gidro. 2016.p65). Harassment and sexual harassment, common forms for discriminations, are actions that go against the principle of gender equality and are des cribed as discriminatory on the basis of gender. Harassment, aRead MoreAnalysis Of Ohio Bath Solutions, Llc Essay1438 Words   |  6 Pagesmembership in a protected class† (p. 81). Acts of illegal discrimination can include excluding candidates from employment or promotion decisions, or paying them less based on their membership in a protected class. Organizations that are found guilty of discrimination can be sued by the victim or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), or both. However, there are ways that an organization can mitigate or prevent discrimination in the workplace. Creating policies and training programs are greatRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of 1964 Essay1124 Words   |  5 PagesDiscrimination in the workplace is typified by failure to treat individuals equally due to biases against various group membership (Triana, Jayasinghe, Pieper, 2015). The United States enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1964, known as Title VII, to outlaw workplace disc rimination of individuals with respect to compensation, terms, conditions of employment, or privileges of employment because of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin. Following Title VII, the Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionRead MoreEssay on Same Sex Harassment1650 Words   |  7 PagesSame Sex Harassment Imagine that you are in the shower of the gym at work and three co-workers enter, then hold you down to the ground while rubbing their genitalia across your bare skin. No matter what the circumstance you would find this behavior appalling and disgusting. Now think to yourself if every person involved had been a male. Would you say that they were just horsing around? I hope not. The attitude of American society and legal culture regarding sexual harassment has changedRead MoreJanie s Harassment Claim Of The Least ! It Is A Crazy Story1690 Words   |  7 PagesThe situation leading up to Janie’s harassment claim is unique to say the least! It is a crazy story, but the all the facts must be presented in order to determine if Janie in fact has a legitimate claim of harassment that she can file with the company and the EEOC. Janie works for a company of 30,000 employees as does Susie, although they work in different geographical regions. Janie has been employed at XYZ Corporation for twelve years, has had attendance issues over several years, and is currentlyRead MoreSexual Harassment And The Workplace1697 Words   |  7 PagesSexual Harassment in the Work Place: Building More Awareness In today’s society, sexual harassment in the workplace has become a problem. This problem should have more attention and awareness provided to help stop these situations from happening. Sexual harassment can happen anywhere, at any time, and to everyone. It does not discriminate and effects all ethnicity, genders, age, and races. Due to the larger number of cases presented in courts today, sexual harassment in the workplace continues toRead MoreHarrassment Is an Example of Discrinimation in Employment Essay example821 Words   |  4 PagesJob Discrimination by definition is the practice of using an individuals race, color, national origin, sex, or religion to make employment decisions related to hiring, firing, compensation, evaluations, promotions, and training. There is a lot of discrimination in employment and the example of discrimination that occur is Harassment. Harassment Sexual harassment is one of the most heard in the workplace and usually it occur when employees are subjected to unwanted and unwelcome treatment due to

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The Role Of Sociology And Its Effect On Society Essay

Sociology is an important term to understand as it explains social life, behavior, and change. Everything that individuals, groups, companies, and even nations do shapes our world and how we interact with others. With that in mind, there are many things that shape society and the groups within it like culture, race, gender, family, groups and organizations, education, and the ever changing norms that we associate with in everyday life. A lot of these norms are influenced by the media. Television shows, movies, music, and celebrities impact individual lives every single day and because of our interaction with other people, media can easily change our society. As it can have such an impact, it is good to look into the sociology that is hidden in movies so we can understand the changes that happen around us. Even though some movies are very realistic and true to the world we live in, some are not, but this does not mean that we cannot sociologically study it. Lilo Stitch is one example of a movie that is not very realistic but there are many aspects in the movie that are true to society that can be illuminated sociologically. Lilo Stitch takes place in a small town on an island in Hawaii where a little girl named Lilo eventually befriends an alien who she comes to name Stitch. The movie starts out at a galactic federation headquarters in space where they are holding a trial for Jumba, the so called evil creator of experiment 626, also known as Stitch. He explains that heShow MoreRelatedStudent s Social Background And Their Connections Within Society1531 Words   |  7 Pagespre-service educator it is imperative to understand a student’s social background and their connections within society. Julie Matthews regards education being concerned with the transmission of culture, values, beliefs, knowledge and skills (2013,p166). Social insights into learner’s backgrounds can expose how and why student’s act and think in a particular way. Developm entally the sociology of education has provided numerous theories, the functionalist perspective, the conflict perspective, Forms ofRead MoreSociological Perspectives on Religion Essay example991 Words   |  4 Pagesthings defined as sacred by an organized community of believers.† (Basirico 379). Religion is an important element in the society because it influences the way individuals act and think. It has shaped the relationship and bonding among families as well as influenced the decision made in economics and politics. Religion in general has contributed to shape a society and a government structure which will influence the way the individuals under certain governmental structure behave. SociologistsRead MoreChanging Society - What is the Role of the Sociologist?696 Words   |  3 PagesSociology is commonly understood to be the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society [1]. Since the dawn of this social science, grand theorists such a s Durkheim, Engels, Marx, Comte and Weber have aimed to organise and discover knowledge about the social realm. Nevertheless the Weberian distinction between the role of the sociologist as a positivist scientist and an interpretivist citizen has been increasingly called into question, predominantly in a modern (and arguablyRead MoreCritical Theory, Functionalism And Symbolic Interactionism Essay1351 Words   |  6 PagesIn sociology, there are three major theories; critical theory, functionalism and symbolic interactionism. These theories express the structure of society in which each theory looks at a different aspects of sociology. Sociologists apply these theories in the study of society, but it becomes difficult if only one theory is applied. For that one applied theory, would only look at the aspect to which it is confined to. To successfully study sociology all three theories must be applied together. CriticalRead MoreThe Main Principles Of Functionalism1429 Words   |  6 Pagesthe family unit had several functions in society however its two main functions were socialization and stabilization of personalities (a sociologyof family life deborah.c), Conflicting theory however has contradicting views and explanations on the purpose of the family unit in society. Conflict theory interprets the family as a system of power relations that reinforces and reflects the inequalities in society. (understanding a diverse society sociology pg399) These inequalities consist of genderRead MoreEssay Positivists 1421 Words   |  6 Pagesreality by applying methods of natural sciences in sociology . For them, reality exists independently of the human mind and nature is made up of objective, observable, physical facts that are external to our minds. They believe that like matter, humans are directed by an external stimuli-the society-and they act accordingly (example: functionalism, Marxism). By analyzing quantitative data, positivists simply seek to discover laws of cause and effect that determine human behavior. One of the firstRead More How the Study of Sociology Helps us to Understand Different Societies877 Words   |  4 Pages Sociology allows us to understand how different groups of people act the way they do, and also brings us into their cultures, heritage and different backgrounds. This study also explains how culture plays a role in the way different groups act, and how it reflects on their society. There are many social issues that sociology explains, such as how larger social and historical forces effect the way the communities act and how individuals act. All of these topics stress how important sociologyRead MoreEssay on John J. Coakley on the Sociology of Sport1056 Words   |  5 Pagesact different around other friends? Sociology is the study of these and other social behaviors and how people interact with others in groups. The sociology of sport is seen as a subdivision of sociology where the main focus is on the relationship between society and sport. There are many ways to analyze the sociology of sport. One way is to look behind what society sees as real to see if things are really as they seem. Another way to analyze the sociology of sport is to objectively look at otherRead MoreThe Concept Of The Looking Glass Self1423 Words   |  6 PagesSociology 1110 Winter 2015 Assignment 4 – Expository-Explanatory Paper The increase in interest to the problem of communication in sociology actualized questions of understanding the nature of the individual. This determined the weakening of the behaviorist tradition, which is characterized by a nihilistic attitude to the study of psychological processes and the determination of the human life as a manifestation of the externally observable behavior (by analogy with the animal reaction). The interactionistRead MoreThe Relationship Between Public Sociology And The Tradition Of Positivism913 Words   |  4 Pagesbetween public sociology to the tradition of Positivism. Historically, Positivistic Theory is based on a strict adherence to the scientific aspects of economy and materialism, which seek to analyze society in terms of the physicality of culture and social phenomenon. These traditions stem from the growth of scientific thought and economic analysis found in Marxism, and other ideologies that analyze the material qualities of a culture. In this man ner, the growth of Public Sociology is an important

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Othello, By William Shakespeare - 957 Words

Tragedy is best felt when an innocent person kills himself while not knowing the truth. The best example of that would be the play Othello by the great William Shakespeare. As little as a handkerchief could make a difference if it is a symbol for something. In the play Othello by Shakespeare, handkerchief is first introduced by Othello to his beautiful mistress, Desdemona, as a sign of their love. At the end of the play what gets Othello to take extreme measures by the location of the handkerchief. As the symbol of the handkerchief transforms from a strong symbol of love to a gift then to factor of suspicious and evidence. As the play goes to the bond between Othello and Desdemona gets stronger. In order to represent that bond Othello gives Desdemona, his mother’s handkerchief as a symbol of their love. Desdemona keeps handkerchief and cares about it. As the play’s progresses Iago, Othello’s trustworthy guy, is successful in planting the seed of doubt in Othello ’s head about Desdemona is having affair with Cassio. Othello gets thinking about the signs of Desdemona that Othello thinks Desdemona is having relationship with Cassio behind his back. As Desdemona tries to convince Othello to put back Cassio to his respectable position as a lieutenant. During an act three when Desdemona and Othello have a heated argument in their room Othello let go the handkerchief to the ground and leaves the room with Desdemona. â€Å"He puts the handkerchief from him, and it drops† (ShakespeareShow MoreRelatedOthello, By William Shakespeare1599 Words   |  7 Pages William Shakespeare’s 16th century play Othello is a duplicitous and fraudulent tale set alternatingly between Venice in act 1, and the island of Cyprus thereafter. The play follows the scandalous marriage between protagonist Othello, a Christian moore and the general of the army of Venice, and Desdemona, a respected and intelligent woman who also happens to be the daughter of the Venetian Senator Brabantio. Shakespeare undoubtedly positions the marriage to be viewed as heroic and noble, despiteRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1218 Words   |  5 PagesIn a historical time period where emphasis was shifting from religion to race and ethnicity, key indicators of differences that perpetuated into racial prejudice and racial ideologies are evident in Othello by William Shakespeare. Although racism was not fully formed at this moment in history, Othello can be interpreted as a representation and an exploration of this shift in ideology. In the past, before this change to ward racial differences, religion was the major segretory factor in signifyingRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare894 Words   |  4 Pagesthose that which occurred in Othello written by William Shakespeare. Throughout the play Othello, we see the struggles of a marriage that is not accepted by their society. Othello is a extremely cherished black general living in a primarily white community. The play begins with Othello secretly becoming married to a white woman named Desdemona. This reasons others who are white to become angry and excuse to dislike this black man further more than they already do. Othello is a downward spiral from loveRead MoreOthello by William Shakespeare790 Words   |  3 PagesThroughout Othello by William Shakespeare, Othello makes numerous poor decisions due to his jealousy. Hitting Desdemona, trusting Iago, and killing Desdemona are among a few of the poor decisions that he makes. The word jealous can be defined as feeling or showing suspicion of som eones unfaithfulness in a relationship. Othello feels suspicious of Desdemona’s and Cassio’s relationship because of the lies that Iago tells him. Many people try to tell Othello the truth but he only believes the wordsRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1923 Words   |  8 Pagesdissatisfaction or complication is shown. Firstly in Othello love is presented as ephemeral and transient while atonement love is presented as unrequited and finally in cat on a hot tin roof love is presented as painful and troublesome due to unreciprocated feelings. The tragic plot of Othello hinges on the potential of the villain, Iago, to deceive other characters, above all Roderigo and Othello, through encouraging them to misinterpret what they see. Othello is prone to Iago s ploys seeing that he himselfRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare941 Words   |  4 Pageswas Williams Shakespeare’s play Othello which depicts the tragedy of Othello, a Morris Captain. What is different about Shakespeare play is that the tragic hero is the black Othello and the villain a white Iago. Therefore, Shakespeare depiction of Othello as a tragic character and Iago as a villain, challenges Elizabethan’s stereotypes regarding individuals of African descent. Shakespeare challenges the stereotypical â€Å"type –casting of the black man† in Elizabethan society by depicting Othello asRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1152 Words   |  5 Pages‘Othello’ was a tragedy of incomprehension at the deepest level of human dealings as no one in the play came to an understanding of himself or any of the surrounding characters. The play ‘Othello’ by William Shakespeare focused on tragedy through the anguish of the main character ‘Othello’ which lead to the suffering and death of numerous characters including himself. Appearance Vs. Reality challenged human dealings within the play ‘Othello’ as no-one came to see anyone’s true self and no-one seesRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1178 Words   |  5 Pagesprofitable in condition of good and immorality. Othello is presented as good and Iago as evil, but Iago and Othello’s relationship also shares a distrust of their wives. The overall logical argument is based on love, jealousy and betrayal between two lovers that ultimately leads to their separation because of Iago’s evil plan. I am using this article to agree with Berry s view on how Iago separates two lovers just so he can take retaliation on Othello by manipulating everyone to unmasking their trueRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1825 Words   |  8 PagesWilliam Shakespeare’s plays transcends time and is renowned for their captivating plots and complex characters. Othello by William Shakespeare is a tragedy play that portrays major themes such as racism, manipulation, and jealousy just to name a few. Throughout the whole play, these themes are represented through the conniving character from the play, Iago. Out of all the plays Shakespeare has written, Iago is believed to be the most complex villain of all times. During the play, Othello, a blackRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1140 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Othello† is a play written by William Shakespeare in 1603. In this play, Shakespeare features three major characters: Othello, Iago, and Desdemona. Othello, a black man , and Desdemona, a white venetian secretly eloped in the play. Iago shows racism and prejudice towards their relationship because of their skin colors. In the play, Iago says: â€Å"Even now, now, very now, an old black ram is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise! Awake the snorting citizens with the bell, or else the devil will make a

Saturday, December 14, 2019

How Typical Are X Factor and Csi of Their Genres Free Essays

Genre is a way of classifying and then categorising a particular text, they are made up of their own codes and conventions for example narrative, characters and themes which standardise the way in which a story is told. X Factor and CSI have all been huge successes in their own respective genres and this essay will study how conventional these texts are to their genre and how this effects their audience. X Factor is a reality TV programme which attempts to turn an ordinary person into a pop star through its talent contest narrative. We will write a custom essay sample on How Typical Are X Factor and Csi of Their Genres? or any similar topic only for you Order Now It relates to the ‘American Dream’ ideology in the way that it can turn people’s lives from ‘rags to riches’. A conventional representation of reality TV would feature very ordinary people and often trying to make their lives better, or to fix their problems, and then other conventions are more specific to narrative, for example in this case the conventions of a talent show is a high production value which includes viewing luxuries such a flashy lights, extravagant camera angles (such as Birdseye), special effects, and celebrities. The X Factor is no different and seems to embed all these values associated with reality talent shows. However, the X Factor started back in 2004 and has influenced the typical representation of other talent shows ever since, so this would include the Two Step Flow theory as the X Factor has acted as an opinion leader, and has set down the modern conventions for reality talent shows. X Factor has clear intertextuality with more early talent shows such as opportunity knocks. Although the main and considerable difference nowadays is the increased production values and technology, there are also conventions across the two that can be linked. For example the use of a presenter, Hughie Green for opportunity knocks and Dermot O’Leary for the X Factor. Also, the public voting system, opportunity knocks was the original and first talent show to use this method of voting as oppose to having a panel of ‘experts’ or music celebrities. X Factor also has this same public voting system which connotes them to be using typical and previously used conventions in order to attract audience. A talent show relies specifically on audience is order to be a success. The contestants of the show are mainly battling for fame and fortune, and therefore publicity. If there is no publicity or interest from an audience, then the show is redundant. The X Factor certainly lives up to this typical feature of talent shows, as it has pulled in an average of 8. 4 million viewers in 2012, and although that is a considerable decrease from its earlier years, it is still sufficient for the advancement of the show. However, the X Factor produces much controversy and therefore more media attention. For example, very recently there has been an article in the Daily Mail discussing an incident where a producer whispered in Louis Walsh’s ear just as he was about to make his vote. His vote was then very unpredicted and controversial causing outrage to the British public. Such articles and outrage to the X Factor, fuels and benefits the show and puts the X Factor in the spotlight. This relates to Social Integration, as people would start watching X Factor to see what all the controversy is about, and to feel up to date with the social media trends. All of this results in increased X Factor ratings. CSI has a thriller type genre, with the main focus on crime and police procedural elements. Within the crime genre there is always a focus on gathering clues, in modern crime this is viewed as a chase as evidence deteriorates. This has overrun the typical convention of the car chase although this is still used to provide nostalgia the resemblance between the two is symbolic of fast changing crime. This is a form of iconography in CSI where there is a chase to gather and process evidence to solve the crime and restore order. The iconic image of the police which remains constant throughout the genre is one of evidence gathering, uniform, fast cars, hard work, and the criminal underclass all feature in the crime genre. Vladimir Propp’s narrative theory can be applied to CSI and most other crime investigation programmes as it is standard within the crime genre. The main focus is on the ‘attempt to repair disruption’ and almost every episode ends with the resolution which connotes the programme to have a closed narrative, as the audience are always anticipating that the police beat the crime, and the ‘good guys’ win. It enables channels to fulfil their Public service Broadcasting (PSB) remit whilst not committing to commoditisation, therefore maintaining the realistic aspect which the genre relies upon. The use of an ensemble cast/recurring list of characters allows the programme to maintain a set structure, some characters appear in all episodes such as Nick Stokes in CSI, allowing the audience to gather ‘evidence’ on the characters and depict their lifestyles. The focus of the audience is maintained on a main character either from episode to episode or series to series. Understanding the main character is key to the crime genre as it helps the audience to understand the programmes and themes. Characters often reflect the characteristics or expectations of the audience and develop with time. As previously mentioned, the crime genre has many realism conventions, and CSI is no different. The use of lighting is often low key and natural to create a dark and gloomy effect. This connotes realism as it represents reality with all the disruptions present, as opposed to a light and more fantasy world. CSI also uses Noir lighting to give a dark and forlorn mood and again give an element of realism all designed to relate to the audience in the form of personal identity and surveillance according to the uses and gratifications theory. Overall, both genres follow many of their genre conventions to attract audience and remain stereotypical to the values and ideologies that they represent. However, it should be noted that CSI and X Factor are the leading texts for their respective genres, and this may cause them to have an influence on what is considered a typicality of their genre. Similarities that the genres have are that they both use a reality aspect to relate to their audience (social integration) and this is very common across multiple genres in modern day media. How to cite How Typical Are X Factor and Csi of Their Genres?, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

ARSON STATS Essay Example For Students

ARSON STATS Essay ARSON FACTS1. Arson kills 100 people, injures 2,500 and costs the UK economy 1.3 billion everyyear, according to A Compendium of Arson in the UK, published today by theAssociation of British Insurers (ABI). 2. Key information in this new collection of arson research and statistics includes:3. In the UK, around 45% of all fires attended by the fire brigade are as a result ofarson. 4. Between 1987 and 1998, the number of arson attacks more than doubled, increasingfrom 37,400 to 88,300. This contrasts with falling numbers of accidental fires downfrom 128,200 in 1987 to 110,700 in 1998. 5. Around a fifth of arson attacks are on homes, killing up to 70 people each year, andinjuring 2,000. These fires cause around 55 million worth of damage each year. 6. Arson attacks on motor vehicles account for around half of all malicious fires in theUK, causing 20 deaths and injuring up to 80 people every year. The financial cost isaround 77 million each year. 7. Schools are also a key target, with around three-quarters of school fires caused byarson. Deliberately-started school fires cost over 40 million a year. 8. Commenting on the Compendium, Tony Baker, ABIs Deputy Director General, andChief Executive of the Arson Prevention Bureau, said:9. This publication gathers together, for the first time, key statistics andresearch findings on the massive problem of arson in the UK. The cost especially the human cost is shocking, and I hope that, by publicisingthe extent and size of the problem, we can help to encourage improvedprevention of arson and detection of arsonists.